Bahasa Inggris


Praise be to Allah who has bestowed Grace, Taufik and Hidayah to all His servants. Salawat and greetings are always devoted to our master Muhammad and his family, his friends and relatives until the end of time. Thank God for grace thanks to Allah we can finish writing an English paper, entitled “FUNCTION TO BE”.

Do not forget me say thanks to Mr. Ign. Binartoto, S.Pd. Lecturer of English as one who has guided the preparation of this paper. And all parties who have assisted me in preparing this paper.

We are aware of the shortcomings and errors in this paper, therefore, suggestions and constructive criticism so we hope for the perfection of this paper. And we hope this paper can provide benefits and add insight for us all.


1. Background

To be a basic thing which is very important in learning English. To some it can simply be interpreted as an auxiliary word. To be able to be classified as a main verb and auxiliary verb. Main verb is a main verb in a sentence or it can be said as the core of a sentence. To be categorized as a Main verb if it met the noun, adjective, or adverb. Auxiliary verb is a verb that helps the main verb (main verb) to form a complete sentence structure. The main characteristic is the auxiliary verb can not stand alone in a sentence, but it requires a main verb. To be functioning as an auxiliary verb if it met the verb + ing or III verb (past participle).

To be in time to be divided into two forms to be present (now) and to be past (past). To be present is used to indicate ongoing activity or activity that is a habit. To be past used to express past events or activities stated that the frequency is rare.

To be used in a sentence can be different depending on the subject that is used or the time information used in the sentence. To clarify the use of both forms to be the note following table:


In general, to be interpreted as a word commonly used aids if
meet one of the following:

1. Adjective

Adjective or adjective is a word that describes a noun (kata benda) or
pronoun (kata ganti).

S to be (am / is / are / was / were the resource persons) Adj


Mary is clever.
S to be Adj

We were busy.
S to be Adj

• In Example 1 the subject of a noun (Mary) is described by adjectiveclever.In example 2 words busy (adj) describes a state of the subject pronoun (we). To link objects by their very nature should have to be.

• In Example 1, to be used is is because the subject is third person singular and the present form of the sentence is (now). While in Example 2 to be used is because the subjects were the resource persons in the form of first person plural and the past tenses (past)

2. Noun

Noun is a word naming people, places, things, or ideas.

S + to be (am / is / are / was / were the resource persons) + noun

The son of my lecture is a lawyer.
S to be singular noun

Mr. and Mrs. Wahab are Riva’s parents.
S to be a plural noun

• In the example above, the noun which can be used in the singular (singular noun) or plural (plural noun). Noun form of this influence to be used. For the singular noun, to be used must also be shaped singular (am / is / was) as well as with the plural noun is used must be to be to the condition plural (are / were the resource persons).

• It should be noted that to be, both for the singular noun and plural noun should be based on the subject are used. The subject for the example 1 is the third person singular is to be used is singular. While in Example 2, the subject of the plural form to be used are


Adverb is a word that describes a verb (verb), adjectives (adjective), or another adverb (adverb). Adverd typically used consisting of two: Adverb of time (tense) and an adverb of place (the description).

S + to be (am / is / are / was / were the resource persons) + Adv

To better understand the use to be in connection with the description
(adverb) Consider the example below:

1. They are speaking Engglish now.
S to be verbs Adv of Time

2. I am in Jakarta
S to be Adv of Place

In example 1, use an adverb of time in which to explain verb in front of him. Because the subject is first person plural and the sentence is the present (sekarang), then the most appropriate to be used in this sentence are.

In the example of two statements in the form of an adverb of place. Because the subject of the first person singular, then to be used am. Although no details of time, but seen to be of use in mind that the sentence is also in the present (sekarang)

4.Verb ing.

Ing verb form known as continuous tense forms. There are two forms of the present continuous tense continuous tense (present) and the past continuous tense (past). The present is used to describe events that are happening. Past form is used to describe the events taking place (not over) along with other new events take place

S to be V-ing

• Present Continuous Tense
Riva is doing the experiment
S to be V-ing O

Nurses are taking care of the patient
S to be V-ing Prep O

• Past Continuous Tense
The truck was going very fast when it hit our car.
S to be V-ing Adv Adv of Time

We were crossing the street when the police officer shouted at us.

S to be V-ing O Adv of Time

In English language rules, if the subject met with the verb form I (Verb I) then it should not be separated by any word. However, in this case, because the verb ending in-ing used in a sentence then it should be used to be before the word verb-ing it. The use to be always adjusted to the shape of the subject (singular or plural)

5. Verb III ( Past Participle)

To be followed by a verb form III (verb III) commonly used in the form of a passive sentence (passive voice). In general, these tenses are used when the offender does not need or activity is not known. However, if required, should be added to indicate the offender kataby activities. It is intended to facilitate the conversion of form passive sentences into active forms.

 Simple Present tense: is / am / are + past participle (verb-III)

Active: They teach Engglish in high school.

Passive: Engglish is taught in high school.

 Present Continuous Tense: is / am / are + being + past participle (verb-III)

Active: A construction company is building a big house on Jalan Merdeka now..

Passive: A big house is being built on Jalan Merdeka (by a conctruction company) now.

 Simple Past Tense: was / were the resource persons + past participle (verb-III)

Active: Someone broke the glass window last night.

Passive: The glass window was broken last night.

 Past Continuous Tense :was/were + being + past participle

Active: The workers were repairing the road when I passed there this morning.

Passive:The road was being repaired when I passed there this morning.

6.To be question

The question that begins with taking one to be meaning
“Is …” with the answer of “Yes, …” or “No,…”.

To be + S + Adj / Adv / Noun / V-III


You are at the concert yesterday.
Changes to the interrogative form is done by putting to be in front of the subject (beginning sentence), while other components do not change position. So the interrogative form of the sentence above is:

Were you at the concert yesterday?
To be S Adv of Place Adv of Time

Yes, I was.
No, I was not


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